Dokdo’s climate is typical oceanic climate largely influenced by temperate currents, with the average temperature around 12°C. Dokdo is considered relatively warm, as its average temperature in the coldest month (January) is 1°C and that of the hottest month (August) is 23°C. Dokdo is generally very windy with the average wind velocity at 4.3m/s. The wind blows mostly from the southwest in summer and from the northeast in winter.
Dokdo is classified as a relatively humid region with frequent fog covers, 160 or more days of cloud cover a year, and some 150 days of rain. It is either raining or snowing for almost 85% of the year in Dokdo. Dokdo’s annual average precipitation is approximately 1,240mm, snow being the usual winter precipitation, and heavy snowfall is typical for the region.
The waters surrounding Dokdo are located on the southern side of a polar front that forms a border between the warm currents from the south and the cold currents from the north. The waters surrounding Dokdo are largely influenced by the warm currents for the most part of the year, and the surface layer temperature stays between 9 to 25℃ year round.
Dokdo consists of volcanic islets formed by hardened lava which erupted about 2,000m underwater. It was formed between the early and the late Pliocene Epoch in the third phase of the Cenozoic Era, between about 4.6 million and about 2.5 million years ago. Considering that Ulleungdo was formed about 2.5 million years ago, Dokdo is about 2 million years older than Ulleungdo.
Dokdo is composed of alkali volcanic rocks formed by volcanic activities, namely basalt and trachyte. Its soil is residual, weathered from the peak of the mountains, lying on steep slopes of over a 30° grade. The sandy loam is dark or reddish brown in color.